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Foxe's Book of Martyrs -- 159. MARTYRS IN SPAIN



A table of such martyrs, as, for the cause of religion, suffered in Spain


Franciscus San Romanus, at Burgos, in Spain. Persecuted by certain Spanish merchants in Antwerp, and also by the friars of that city.

Illustration -- A Martyr Hung over a Fire

In the year 1540 this Francis was sent by certain Spanish merchants of Antwerp, to Bremen, to take up money due, to be paid by certain merchants there; where he, being at a sermon, hearing Master Jacobus (prior some time of the Austin Friars of Antwerp) preach, was so touched and drawn, through the marvellous working of God's Spirit, at the hearing thereof, albeit having no perfect understanding of the Dutch tongue, that not only he understood all that was there said, but also coming to the preacher, and accompanying him home, (all his other worldly business set apart,) there recited the whole contents of his sermon, every thing (as they said, which heard the said minister of Bremen preach) in perfect form and order as he had preached. After this little taste, and happy beginning, he proceeded further, searching and conferring with learned men, that in short space he was grown in great towardness and ripe knowledge in the word of life. The minister, marvelling at the sudden mutation of the man, and also seeing the vehemency of his zeal joined withal, began to exhort him how to temper himself with circumspection and discretion, still more and more instructing him in the word and knowledge of the gospel, which he so greedily did receive, as one that could never be satisfied; and so remained he with the minister three days together, committing his worldly business, and the message that he was sent for, unto his fellow which came with him. Thus being inflamed with another desire, he ceased to seek for temporal trifles, seeking rather for such French or Dutch books as he could get to read; and again, read the same so diligently, that partly by the reading thereof, partly by Master Jacobus, and also by Master Maccabeus, (which was there the same time,) he was able in a short time to judge in the chief articles of our religion; insomuch that he took upon him to write letters unto his countrymen the merchants of Antwerp. In the which letters first he gave thanks to God for the knowledge of his holy word which he had received: secondly, he bewailed the great cruelty and gross blindness of his countrymen; desiring God to open their eyes and ears, to see and understand the word of their salvation: thirdly, he promised shortly to come to them at Antwerp, to confer with them touching the grace of God, which he had received: fourthly, declareth to them his purpose in going also to Spain, intending there likewise to impart to his parents, and other friends at Burgos, the wholesome doctrine which the Lord had bestowed upon him.

Beside this, he addressed other letters also to Charles the emperor, opening to him the calamities and miserable state of Christ's church; desiring him to tender the quietness thereof: especially that he would reform the miserable corruption of the church of Spain, &c. Over and besides all this, he wrote there a catechism, and divers other treatises, in the Spanish tongue. And allthis he did in one month's space.

In the mean time the Spanish merchants of Antwerp, understanding by his letters, both his change of religion, and also his purpose of coming to Antwerp, sent him letters again, pretending outwardly a fair countenance of much good will, but secretly practising his destruction; for at the day appointed of his coming, certain friars were set ready to receive him, who took him coming down from his horse, rifled his books, and had him into a merchant's house near hand, where they examined him; with whom he again disputed mightily: and when they found him not agreeing to their faith, they bound him hand and foot, crying out upon him, and calling him Lutheran; and burnt his books before his face, threatening to burn him also. At this disputation within the house, divers Spaniards were present, which made the friars more bold. Being demanded to show of what faith and religion he was; "My faith," said he, "is to confess and preach Christ Jesus only, and him crucified, which is the truefaith of the universal church of Christ through the whole world; but this faith and doctrine you have corrupted, taking another abominable kind of life, and by your impiety have brought the most part of the world into blindness most miserable." And to explain his faith to them more expressly, he recited all the articles of the Creed.

This done, then the friars asked, whether he believed the bishop of Rome to be Christ's vicar, and head of the church, having all the treasures of the church in his own power, and being able to bind and loose? also to make new articles, and abolish the old, at his own will and arbitrement? Hereunto Francis answered again, that he believed none of all this, but contrary did affirms that the pope was antichrist, born of the devil, being the enemy of Jesus Christ, transferring to himself God's honour; and who, moreover, being incited by the devil, turned all things upside down, and corrupted the sincerity of Christ's religion, partly by his false pretences beguiling, partly by his extreme cruelty destroying, the poor flock of Christ, &c. With the like boldness he uttered his mind likewise against the mass and purgatory. The friars could suffer him meanly well to speak, till he came to the pope, and began to speak against his dignity, and their profit; then could they abide no longer, but thundered against him words full of cruelty and terror. As they were burning his books, and began also to cast the New Testament into the fire, Francis, seeing that, began to thunder out against them again. The Spaniards then, supposing him not to be in his right senses, conveyed him into a tower six miles distant from Antwerp, where he was detained in a deep cave or dungeon, with much misery, the space of eight months; in which time of his imprisonment many grave and discreet persons came to visit him, exhorting him that he would change his opinion, and speak more modestly. Francis answered again, that he maintained no opinion erroneous or heretical; and if he seemed to be somewhat vehement with the friars, that was not to be ascribed to him, so much as to their own importunity; hereafter he would frame himself more temperately. Hereupon the Spaniards, thinking him better come to himself, discharged him out of prison, which was about the time when the emperor was in his council at Ratisbon, A.D. 1541.

San Romanus, being thus freed out of prison, came to Antwerp, where he remained about twenty days. From thence he went to Louvain, unto a certain friend of his, named Francis Dryander, (who also afterwards died a martyr,) with whom he had much conference about divers matters of religion; who gave him counsel not to alter the state of his vocation, being called to be a merchant, which state he might exercise with a good conscience, and do much good. And as touching religion, his counsel was, that he should say or do nothing for favour of men, whereby the glory of God should be diminished; but so that he required notwithstanding in the same, a sound and right judgment, conformed to the rule of God's word, lest it might chance to him as it doth to many, who, being carried with an inconsiderate zeal, leave their vocations, and while they think to do good, and to edify, destroy and do harm, and cast themselves needlessly into danger.

"It is God," said he, "that hath the care of his church, and will stir up faithful ministers for the same; neither doth he care for such which rashly intrude themselves into that function without any calling."

This advertisement of Dryander Francis did willingly accept, promising hereafter to moderate himself more considerately. But this promise was shortly broken, as you shall hear; for, passing from Dryander he went to Ratisbon, and there, having time and opportunity convenient to speak to the emperor, he stepped boldly unto him, beseeching him to deliver his country and subjects of Spain from false religion, and to restore again the sincerity of Christ's doctrine, declaring and protesting, that the princes and protestants of Germany were in the truer part, and that the religion of Spain, being drowned in ignorance and blindness, was greatly dissonant from the true and perfect word of God; with many other words pertaining to the same effect. The emperor all this while gave him gentle hearing, signifying that he would consider upon the matter, and so do therein as he trusted should be for the best. This quiet answer of the emperor ministered to him no little encouragement of better hope; and albeit he might perceive there in the city many examples to the contrary, yet all that discouraged not him, but he went the second, and also the third, time unto the emperor, who quietly again so answered him as before. And yet this our Francis, not satisfied in his mind, sought with a greater ardency the fourth time to speak to the emperor; but he was repulsed by certain of the Spaniards about the emperor, who, incontinent, without all further hearing or advising in the cause, would have thrown him headlong into the river Danube, had not the emperor staid them, and willed him to be judged by the laws of the empire. By this commandment of the emperor he was reserved and detained with other malefactors in bonds, till the emperor took his voyage into Africa. Then Francis, with other captives following the court, after the emperor was come into Spain, was there delivered to the inquisitors; by whom he was laid in a dark prison under the ground. Oft and many times he was called for to examination, where he suffered great injuries and contumelies, but ever remained in his conscience firm and unmovable. The articles whereupon he stood, and for which he was condemned were these:

That life and salvation in the sight of God, come to no man by his own strength, works, or merits, but only by the free mercy of God, in the blood and sacrifice of his Son our Mediator.

That the sacrifice of the mass, which the papists do account available, ex opere operato, for the remission of sin both to the quick and the dead, is horrible blasphemy.

That auricular confession with the numbering up of sins, also that satisfaction, purgatory, pardons, invocation of saints, and worshipping of images, be mere blasphemy against the living God.

Item, That the blood of Christ is profaned and injured in the same aforesaid.

After the inquisitors perceived that by no means he could be reclaimed from his assertions, they proceeded at last to the sentence, condemning him to be burned for a heretic. Many other malefactors were brought also with him to the place of execution, but all they were pardoned and dismissed: he only for the gospel, being odious to the whole world, was taken and burned. As he was led to the place of suffering, they put upon him a mitre of paper, painted full of devils, after the Spanish guise.

Furthermore, as he was brought out of the city gate to be burned, there stood a wooden cross by the way, whereunto Francis was required to do homage; which he refused, answering, that the manner of Christians is not to worship wood, and he was, said he, a Christian. Hereupon arose great clamour among the vulgar people, for that he denied to worship the wooden cross. But this was turned incontinent into a miracle. Such was the blind rudeness of that people, that they did impute this to the divine virtue, as given to the cross from heaven, for that it would not suffer itself to be worshipped of a heretic: and immediately, for the opinion of that great miracle, the multitude with their swords did hew it in pieces, every man thinking himself happy who might carry away some chip or fragment of the said cross.

When he was come to the place where he should suffer, the friars were busy about him to have him recant, but he continued ever firm. As he was laid upon the heap of wood, and the fire kindled about him, he began a little, at the feeling of the fire, to lift up his head toward heaven; which when the inquisitors perceived, hoping that he would recant his doctrine, they caused him to be taken from the fire. But when they perceived nothing less in him, the adversaries, being frustrate of their expectation, willed him to be thrown in again; and so was he immediately despatched.

After that the martyrdom of this blessed man was thus consummate, the inquisitors proclaimed openly, that he was damned in hell, and that none should pray for him; yea, and that all were heretics, whosoever doubted of his damnation. Nevertheless certain of the emperor's soldiers gathered of his ashes; also the English ambassador procured a portion of his bones to be brought unto him, knowing right well that he died a martyr. Yet this could not be so secretly done, but it came to the ears of the inquisitors, and of the emperor; wherefore the soldiers, going in great danger of life, were committed to prison. Neither did the ambassador himself escape clear from the danger of the pope's scourge; for he was upon the same sequestered from the court, and commanded to be absent for a space. And thus much concerning the notable martyrdom of this blessed San Romanus.


Rochus, at St. Lucar in Spain, A.D. 1545. Persecuted by an inquisitor.

Rochus was born in Brabant, his father dwelling in Antwerp. By his science he was a carver or graver of images; who, as soon as he began first to taste the gospel, fell from making such images as use to serve for idolatry in temples, and occupied himself in making seals, save only that he kept standing on his stall an image of the Virgin Mary artificially graven, for a sign of his occupation. It happened unhappily, that a certain inquisitor passing by in the street, and beholding the carved image, asked of Rochus what was the price thereof? which when Rochus had set, (not willing belike to sell it,) the inquisitor bade him scarce half the money. The other answered again, that he could not so live of that bargain. But still the inquisitor urged him to take his offer; to whom Rochus again: "It shall be yours," said he, "if you give me that which my labour and charges stand me in, but of that price I cannot afford it: yea, I had rather break it in pieces." "Yea," said the inquisitor, "break it? let me see thee." Rochus with that took up a chisel, and dashed it upon the face of the image, wherewith the nose, or some other part of the face, was blemished. The inquisitor, seeing that, cried out that he was mad, and commanded Rochus forthwith to prison: to whom Rochus cried again, that he might do in his own works what he listed; and if the workmanship of the image were not after his fantasy, what was that to them? But all this could not help Rochus, but within three days after, sentence was given upon him, that he should be burned, and so was he committed to the executioners. As Rochus was entering the place there to be burned, he cried with a loud voice, asking among the multitude which there stood by, if any man of Flanders were there? It was answered, Yea; and also that there were two ships already fraught, and appointed to sail to Flanders. Then said he, "I would desire some of them to signify to my father dwelling in Antwerp, that I was burned here in this city, and for this cause which you all have heard." And thus, after his prayers made to God, this good man, being wrongfully condemned, after his godly life made this blessed end, A.D. 1545.

And lest this so rare and strange example of cruelty should seem to lack credit, in the fifth book of the History of Pantaleon there is recorded, that a certain Spaniard, coming to Antwerp, made diligent inquisition there amongst the image-makers, to find out the parents of this Rochus, and signified to them what had happened toward their son, as hath been by his said parents and friends declared; insomuch that it is also testified, that his father, at the hearing of the said message, for sorrow thereof, died shortly after.

Furthermore, besides these above-recited, and also before their time, I hear and understand by faithful relation, that divers other have been in the said country of Spain, whose hearts God had marvellously illuminated, and stirred up, both before, and also since, the coming in of the inquisition, to stand in defence of his gospel, and who were also persecuted for the same, and are said to have died in prison; albeit their names as yet are unknown, for the stories of that country be not yet come to light, but, I trust, shortly shall, as partly some intelligence I have thereof. In the mean time we will come now to the inquisition of Spain, speaking something of the ceremonial pomp and also of the barbarous abuse and cruelty of the same.


The execrable inquisition of Spain.

Illustration -- Martyrs Tortured by the Inquisition

The cruel and barbarous inquisition of Spain first began by King Ferdinand and Isabella his wife, and was instituted against the Jews, which after their baptism, maintained again their own ceremonies: but now it is practised against them that be never so little suspected to favour the verity of the Lord. The Spaniards, and especially the great divines there, do hold that this holy and sacred inquisition cannot err, and that the holy fathers, the inquisitors, cannot be deceived.

Three sorts of men most principally be in danger of these inquisitors: they that they be greatly rich, for the spoil of their goods: they that be learned, because they will not have their misdealings and secret abuses to be spied and detected: they that begin to increase in honour and dignity, lest they, being in authority, should work them some shame or dishonour.

The abuse of this inquisition is most execrable. If any word shall pass out of the mouth of any, which may be taken in evil part; yea, though no word be spoken, yet if they bear any grudge or evil will against the party, incontinent they command him to be taken, and put in a horrible prison, and then find out crimes against him at leisure, and in the mean time no man living is so hardy as once to open his mouth for him. If the father speak one word for his child, he is also taken and cast into prison as a favourer of heretics: neither is it permitted to any person to go in to the prisoner; but there he is alone, in such a place where be cannot see so much as the ground where he is; and is not suffered either to read or write, but there endureth in darkness palpable, in horrors infinite, in fear miserable, wrestling with the assaults of death.

By this it may be esteemed what trouble and sorrow, what pensive sighs and cogitations they sustain, which are not thoroughly instructed in holy doctrine. Add, moreover, to these distresses and horrors of the prison, the injuries, threats, whippings, and scourgings, irons, tortures, and racks which they endure. Sometimes also they are brought out, and showed forth in some higher place to the people, as a spectacle of rebuke and infamy. And thus are they detained there, some many years, and murdered by long torments, and whole days together treated much more cruelly, out of all comparison, than if they were in the hangman's hands to be slain at once. During all this time, what is done in the process no person knoweth, but only the holy fathers and the tormentors, which are sworn to execute the torments. All is done in secret, and (as great mysteries) pass not the hands of these holy ones. And after all these torments so many years endured in the prison, if any man shall be saved, it must be by guessing; for all the proceedings of the court of that execrable inquisition are open to no man, but all is done in hugger-mugger and in close corners, by ambages, by covert ways, and secret counsels. The accuser is secret, the crime secret, the witness secret, whatsoever is done is secret, neither is the poor prisoner ever advertised of any thing. If he can guess who accused him, whereof and wherefore, he may be pardoned peradventure of his life: but this is very seldom, and yet he shall not incontinent be set at liberty before he hath long time endured infinite torments; and this is called their penitence, and so is he let go: and yet not so but that he is enjoined before he pass the inquisitor's hands, that he shall wear a garment of yellow colours for a note of public infamy to him and his whole race. And if he cannot guess right, showing to the inquisitors by whom he was accused, whereof and wherefore, (as is before touched,) incontinent the horrible sentence of condemnation is pronounced against him, that he shall be burned for an obstinate heretic. And so yet the sentence is not executed by and by, but after that he hath endured imprisonment in some heinous prison.

And thus have ye heard the form of the Spanish inquisition. By the vigour and rigour of this inquisition many good true servants of Jesus Christ have been brought to death, especially in these latter years, since the royal and peaceable reign of this our Queen Elizabeth; the names and stories of whom partly we will here recite, according as we have faithful records of such as have come to our hands by writing. The others which be not yet come to our knowledge, we will defer till further intelligence and opportunity, by the Lord's aid and leave, shall serve hereafter.

Illustration -- Martyrs Paraded at Valladolid

IN the year 1559, May. 21, in the town of Valladolid, where commonly the council of the inquisition is wont to be kept, the inquisitors had brought together many prisoners both of high and low estate, to the number of thirty; also the coffin of a certain noble woman, with her picture lying upon it, which had been dead long before, there to receive judgment and sentence. To the hearing of this sentence, they had ordained in the said town three mighty theatres or stages. Upon the first was placed Dame Jane, sister to King Philip, and chief regent of his realms; also Prince Charles, King Philip's son, with other princes and states of Spain. Upon the other scaffold mounted the archbishop of Seville, prince of the synagogue of the inquisitors, with the council of the inquisition; also other bishops of the land, and the king's council with them.

After that the princes and other spiritual judges and councillors were thus set in their places, with a great guard of archers and halberdiers, and harnessed soldiers, with four heralds-at-arms also giving their attendance to the same, and the earl of Buendia bearing the naked sword, all the market-place where the stages were being environed with an infinite multitude of all sorts of the world there standing, and gazing out of windows and houses to hear and see the sentences and judgments of this inquisition: then, after all, were brought forth, as a spectacle and triumph, the poor servants and witnesses of Jesus Christ, to the number, as is aforesaid, of thirty, clothed with their Sanbenito, as the Spaniards do call it, which is a manner of vesture of yellow cloth, coming both before them and behind them, spangled with red crosses, and having burning cierges in their hands; also before them was borne a crucifix covered with black linen cloth, in token of mourning. Moreover they which were to receive the sentence of death, had mitres of paper upon their heads, which the Spaniards call coracas. Thus they being produced, were placed in their order, one under another, according as they were esteemed culpable; so that first of all stood up Doctor Cacalla, an Austin Friar, a man notable and singular in knowledge of divinity, preacher sometime to Charles the Fifth, emperor both in higher and lower Germany.

These things thus disposed, then followed a sermon made by a Dominic friar, which endured about an hour. After the sermon finished, the procurator-general, with the archbishop, went to the stage where the princes and nobles stood, to minister a solemn oath unto them upon the crucifix painted in the mass-book; the tenor of which oath was this:

"Your Majesties shall swear, that you will favour the holy inquisition, and also give your consent unto the same; and not only that you shall by no manner of way hinder and impeach the same, but also you shall employ the uttermost of your help and endeavour, hereafter, to see all them to be executed, which shall swerve from the Church of Rome, and adjoin themselves to the sect of the Lutheran heretics, without all respect of any person or persons, of what estate, degree, quality, or condition soever they be."

And thus much for the first article of the oath; the second was this that followeth

Item, "Your Majesties shall swear, that you shall constrain all your subjects to submit themselves to the Church of Rome, and to have in reverence all the laws and commandments of the same; and also to give your aid against all them, whosoever shall hold of the heresy of the Lutherans, or take any part with them."

In this sort and manner, when all the princes and states, every one in their degree, had received their oath, then the archbishop, lifting up his hand, gave them his benediction, saying, "God bless your Highnesses, and give you long life! "This solemn pageant thus finished, at last the poor captives and prisoners were called out, the procurator-fiscal, or the pope's great collector, first beginning with Dr. Cacalla, and so proceeding to the others in order, as hereafter, in the table which followeth, with their names and their judgments, is described:


1. Dr. Cacalla, a Friar Augustine. The persecutors of Dr. Cacalla and the twenty-seven that follow, were these: The pope's great collector, or procurator-fiscal; the archbishop of Seville, the bishop of Valencia, the bishop of Orense, and lastly, the inquisitors of Spain.

Before the pope's great proctor, or collector-fiscal, first was called forth Doctor Austin Cacalla. This doctor was a friar of Austin's order, and priest of the town of Valladolid, and preacher sometime to the Emperor Charles the Fifth, a man well accounted of for his learning; who for that he was thought to be as the standard-bearer of the gospellers, (whom they call Lutherans,) and preacher and doctor unto them; therefore, he being first called for, was brought from his stage nearer to the procurator-fiscal, there to hear the sentence of his condemnation; which was, that he should be degraded, and presently burned, and all his goods confiscated to the profit and advancement of justice.


2. Francis de Bivero, priest of Valladolid, and brother to the aforesaid Cacalla.

The second prisoner, and next to Doctor Cacalla that was called, was Francis de Bivero his brother, priest also of Valladolid, who received likewise the same sentence of condemnation. And to the intent he should not speak any thing to the prejudice, or against the abuse, of the sacred inquisition, as he before had done both within and without the prison with much boldness; and also because he was much favoured of the people; to the end therefore that no commotion should come by his speaking, his mouth was so stopped and shut up, that he could not speak one word.


3. Dame Blanche de Bivero.

The third was Dame Blanche, sister to the other two aforesaid, against whom also was pronounced the like sentence, as upon her brethren before.


4. John de Bivero.

The fourth was John de Bivero, brother to the same kindred, who was also judged a heretic, and condemned to perpetual prison, and to bear his Sanbenito all his life long; which is an habiliment of dishonour.


5. Dame Constance de Bivero, sister to the same aforesaid.

Dame Constance de Bivero, was the fifth sister to the others before specified, and widow of Ferdinando Ortis, dwelling sometime at Valladolid, who was also condemned, with the like sentence with her brethren, to be burned.


6. The coffin with the dead corpse of Dame Leonore de Bivero, the mother of these aforesaid.

The sixth thunderbolt of condemnation was thundered out against a poor coffin, with the dead corpse of Dame Leonore de Bivero, mother to these above-named, being herself the sixth, and being already dead long before at Valladolid. Above her coffin was her picture laid, which was also condemned with her dead corpse to be burned for a heretic; and yet I never heard of any opinion that this picture did hold, either with or against the Church of Rome. This good mother, while she lived, was a worthy maintainer of Christ's gospel, with great integrity of life; and retained divers assemblies of the saints in her house for the preaching of the word of God. In fine, her corpse and image also, being brought before the fiscal, was condemned likewise (as the mother with her seven children in the Bock of Maccabees) to be burned for a Lutheran heretic, and all her goods to be seized to the behoof of the superior powers, and also her house utterly to be razed and cast down to the ground; and for a memorial of the same, a marble stone was appointed there to be set up in the house, whereon the said cause of her burning should be engraved.


7. Master Aflonse Perez, priest of Valencia.

In the seventh place was condemned Master Aflonse Perez; priest of Valencia, first to be degraded, and afterwards to be burned as a heretic, and all his goods likewise confiscated, and seized, to the behoof of the superiority.

When these seven aforesaid had received their sentence, then the bishop of Valencia, in his pontificalibus, caused Doctor Cacalla, Francis his brother, and Aflonse Perez, to be apparelled and re-vested in priestly vesture. Which done, he took from them first the chalice out of their hands, and so all their other trinkets in order, according to their accustomed solemnity. And thus they, being degraded, and all their priestly unctions taken from their fingers, also their lips and their crowns rased, so were their yellow habits of Sanbenito put over their shoulders again, with their mitres also of paper upon their heads. This done, Doctor Cacalla began to speak, praying the princes and the lords to give him audience: but that not being granted to him, he was rudely repulsed, and returned again to his standing. Only thus much he protested clearly and openly, that his faith, for which he was so handled, was not heretical, but consonant to the pure word of God; for the which also he was pressed and ready to suffer death as a true Christian, and not as a heretic: besides many other worthy sentences of great consolation, which he there uttered in the mean space, while the judges were busy in their sentences against the residue of the martyrs.


8. Don Peter Sarmiento, knight of the order of Alcanta.


9. Dame Mencia, wife of the said Don Peter.


10. Don Lovis de Roxas, son and heir of the marquis de Poza.


11. Dame Anne Henriques.


12. Christopher Dell Campo.


13. Christopher de Padilla.


14. Anthony de Huezuello.


15. Katharine Romain.


16. Frances Errem.


17. Katharine Ortega.


18. Isabell Strada.


19. Jane Valesques.


20. A smith.


21. A Jew.


22. Dame Jane de Silva.


23. Leonore de Lisueros, wife of Huezuello.


24. Marina de Sajavedra.


25. Daniel Quadra.


26. Dame Mary de Royas.


27. Anthony Dominick.


28. Anthony Basor, an Englishman.

After these sentences had been thus pronounced, they which were condemned to be burned, with the coffin of the dead lady and her picture upon the same, were committed to the secular magistrate and to their executioners, which were commanded to do their endeavour. Then were they all incontinent taken, and every one set upon an ass, their faces turned backward, and led with a great garrison of armed soldiers unto the place of punishment, which was without the gate of the town, called Del Campo.

When they were come to the place, there were fourteen stakes set up of equal distance one from another, whereunto every one severally being fastened according to the fashion of Spain, they were all first strangled, and then burned and turned to ashes, save only Anthony Huezuello, who, forasmuch as he had, both within and without the prison, vehemently detested the pope's spiritually, therefore he was burned alive, and his mouth stopped from speaking. And thus these faithful Christians, for the verity and pure word of God, were led to death as sheep to the shambles; who not only most Christianly did comfort one another, but also did so exhort all them there present, that all men marvelled greatly, both to hear their singular constancy, and to see their quiet and peaceable end.

It is reported that, besides these aforesaid, there remained yet behind thirty-seven other prisoners, at the said town of Valladolid, reserved to another tragedy and spectacle of that bloody inquisition.

Furthermore, whereas the story of the said inquisition, being set out in the French tongue, doth reckon the number of the martyrs above-mentioned to be thirty, and yet, in particular declaration of them, doth name no more but eight and twenty; here is therefore to be noted, that either this number lacked two of thirty, or else that two of the said company were returned back without judgment into the prison again.

And thus much for this present, touching the proceeding of the church of Spain in their inquisition against the Lutherans; that is, against the true and faithful servants of Jesus Christ. Albeit there be other countries also, besides Spain, subject unto the same inquisition, as Naples and Sicily; in which kingdom of Sicily, I hear it credibly reported, that every third year are brought forth to judgment and execution a certain number, after the like sort, of Christian martyrs; sometimes twelve, sometimes six; sometimes more, and sometimes less. Among whom there was one, much about the same year above-mentioned, A.D. 1559, who, coming from Geneva to Sicily, upon zeal to do good, was at last laid hands on and being condemned the same time to the fire, as he should take his death, was offered there of the hangman to be strangled, having the cord ready about his neck; but he, notwithstanding, refused the same, and said that he would feel the fire. And so endured he, singing with all his might unto the Lord, till he was bereaved both of speechand life, in the midst of the flame: such was the admirable constancy and fortitude of that valiant soldier of Christ, as is witnessed to me by him, which, being there present the same time, did both then see that which he doth testify, and also doth now testify what he then saw.


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